Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Shiraz

2 Shiraz University

3 Sharif University of Technology


The isolation of native microorganism that produced biosurfactants in order to oil pollutants bioremediation and hydrophobic oil hydrocarbons availability inter soil texture has become important issues in bioremediation technology. Surfactin is one of the biosurfactants with more application that produced by Bacillus subtilis strains could overcome these problems. Thus in this study, we investigated operon which involved in surfactin biosynthesis and its regulator comQXPA operon due to a high level of surfactin biosynthesis by B. subtilis MJ01 isolated from oil contaminated soil based on comparative genomics approaches. Surfactin operon localized and compared among six genomes of close relative strains and MJ01 indicated that missense point mutations on genes of surfactin operon were existence. These mutations affected NPRS protein AMP-binding domain that responsible to bind amino acid to correct the situation on surfactin peptide ring. It seems that lack of hemolytic and anti-microbial function of MJ01 surfactin was due to the creation of missense mutation and modifications in the surfactin biosynthesis NPRS enzyme structure. Moreover, srf genes expression regulated by comQXPA‏ quorum sensing operon. MJ01 Quorum sensing operon rearrangement showed that part of the comQ gene was extended into comX gene and these genes had overlap region. Results suggested that in MJ01 genome has been occurred specific combination of QS genes organization. Despite high similarity of three genes comQXP‏ among MJ01 with BEST7613 and other subtilis strains group, comA gene showed high identity with spizizenii strains group‏.


1.Aleti G., Sessitsch A. and Brader G. (2015) Genome mining: prediction of lipopeptides and polyketides from Bacillus and related Firmicutes. Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal 13:192-203.
2.Comella N. and Grossman A. D. (2005) Conservation of genes and processes controlled by the quorum response in bacteria: characterization of genes controlled by the quorum‐sensing transcription factor ComA in Bacillus subtilis. Molecular Microbiology 57:1159-1174.
3.Desai J. D. and Banat I. M. (1997) Microbial production of surfactants and their commercial potential. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 61:47-64.
4.Dogsa I., Choudhary K. S., Marsetic Z., Hudaiberdiev S., Vera R., Pongor S. and Mandic-Mulec I. (2014) ComQXPA quorum sensing systems may not be unique to Bacillus subtilis: a census in prokaryotic genomes. PloS One 9:e96122.
5.Gao P., Li G., Li Y., Li Y., Tian H., Wang Y., Zhou J. and Ma T. (2016) An exogenous surfactant-producing Bacillus subtilis facilitates indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery. Frontiers in Microbiology 7:186.
6.Ghazali F. M., Rahman R. N. Z. A., Salleh A. B. and Basri M. (2004) Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil by microbial consortium. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 54:61-67.
7.Guan C., Cui W., Cheng J., Zhou L., Liu Z. and Zhou Z. (2016) Development of an efficient autoinducible expression system by promoter engineering in Bacillus subtilis. Microbial Cell Factories 15:66.
8.Jiang J., Gao L., Bie X., Lu Z., Liu H., Zhang C., Lu F. and Zhao H. (2016) Identification of novel surfactin derivatives from NRPS modification of Bacillus subtilis and its antifungal activity against Fusarium moniliforme. BMC Microbiology 16:31.
9.Jhnson Z. I. and Chisholm S. W. (2004) Properties of overlapping genes are conserved across microbial genomes. Genome Research 14:2268-2272.
10.Oslizlo A., Stefanic P., Vatovec S., Beigot Glaser S., Rupnik M. and Mandic‐Mulec I. (2015) Exploring ComQXPA quorum‐sensing diversity and biocontrol potential of Bacillus spp. isolates from tomato rhizoplane. Microbial Biotechnology 8:527-540.
11.Patowary K., Patowary R., Kalita M. C. and Deka S. (2016) Development of an efficient bacterial consortium for the potential remediation of hydrocarbons from contaminated sites. Frontiers in Microbiology 7:1092.
12.Pereira J. F., Gudiña E. J., Costa R., Vitorino R., Teixeira J. A., Coutinho J. A. and Rodrigues L. R. (2013) Optimization and characterization of biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis isolates towards microbial enhanced oil recovery applications. Fuel 111:259-268.
13.Roongsawang N., Washio K. and Morikawa M. (2010) Diversity of nonribosomal peptide synthetases involved in the biosynthesis of lipopeptide biosurfactants. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12:141-172.
14.Shaligram S., Kumbhare S. V., Dhotre D. P., Muddeshwar M. G., Kapley A., Joseph N., Purohit H. P., Shouche Y. S. and Pawar S. P. (2016) Genomic and functional features of the biosurfactant producing Bacillus sp. AM13. Functional & Integrative Genomics 16:557-566.
15.Vallenet D., Belda E., Calteau A., Cruveiller S., Engelen S., Lajus A., Le Fèvre F., Longin C., Mornico D. and Roche D. (2012) MicroScope—an integrated microbial resource for the curation and comparative analysis of genomic and metabolic data. Nucleic Acids Research 41:D636-D647.
16.Vallenet D., Engelen S., Mornico D., Cruveiller S., Fleury L., Lajus A., Rouy Z., Roche D., Salvignol G. and Scarpelli C. (2009) MicroScope: a platform for microbial genome annotation and comparative genomics. Database 2009.
17.Weber T., Blin K., Duddela S., Krug D., Kim H. U., Bruccoleri R., Lee S. Y., Fischbach M. A., Müller R. and Wohlleben W. (2015) antiSMASH 3.0—a comprehensive resource for the genome mining of biosynthetic gene clusters. Nucleic Acids Research 43:W237-W243.
18.Wolf D., Rippa V., Mobarec J. C., Sauer P., Adlung L., Kolb P. and Bischofs I. B. (2015) The quorum-sensing regulator ComA from Bacillus subtilis activates transcription using topologically distinct DNA motifs. Nucleic Acids Research 44:2160-2172.