Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Gene Bank of Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands

2 Gene Bank of Research Institute of Forests & Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization



Chamomile (Anthemis L.), an important medicinal plant belonging to the Asteraceae family, has a wide distribution in Iran and other parts of the world with 175 species. To realize genetic variation within and between species and their populations, we can study chromosome characterizes as chromosome numbers and karyotype characteristics. In the present study, we examined the details of chromosome number and karyological characteristics analysis of 25 populations representing four Anthemis species (A. altissima, A. hausssknechtii, A. trimfettii, and A. pseudocotula) from geographically isolated regions of Iran. Specific staining method and microscopic observation showed somatic chromosome number 2n=18 for all populations, which were confirmed by the previous data. Analysis of the karyotype formula showed a dominant of metacentric chromosomes in almost all of them. The largest chromosome and genome length belonged to two populations of A. pseudocotula species. Populations of A. pseudocotula have chromosome size, and populations of A. haussknechtii have morphology chromosome variation. A cluster analysis of the tested accessions, at 11.19 genetic distance, created three main groups that showed the similarity of members of each group. Additionally, the level of symmetric karyotypes estimated by karyotype characters and the role of each trait in the variation of species and their populations are argued. Genetic variations were confirmed between diploid populations, for different karyotype characters. Observed variation mainly caused by the morphology of chromosomes, and that, its contribution was important in discriminating the populations. We hope these data will be used in future investigation as basic information for breeding and hybridization between species and their populations.